David J. Cox  Explanation by Pattern  REFERENCE - BOOKS


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A BRIEFER HISTORY OF TIME. Steven Hawking with Leonard Mlodinow. 2005  Bantam Dell.  “Up to now, most scientists have been too occupied with the development of new theories that describe what the universe is to ask why.  On the other hand, the people whose business it is to ask why, the philosophers, have not been able to keep up with the advance of scientific theories. In the eighteenth century, philosophers considered the whole of human knowledge, including science, to be their field and discussed questions such as whether the universe had a beginning.  However, in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, science became too technical and mathematical for the philosophers, or anyone else except a few specialists.  Philosophers reduced the scope of their inquiries so much that Wittgenstein, the most famous philosopher of the twentieth century said, ‘The sole remaining task for philosophy is the analysis of language.’ What a comedown from the great tradition of philosophy from Aristotle to Kant!” p 142.  Hawking is Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge.  Among his books, he coauthored the children’s book series, The Kids of Einstein Elementary.

ABOUT FACE: The Essentials of Interface Design.  Alan Cooper.  1995 IDG Books Worldwide.  Cooper is billed here as the “Father of Visual Basic.”  Check the entry at Wikipedia.

AN ESSAY ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF INVENTION IN THE MATHEMATICAL FIELD. Jacques Hadamard. 1945 Princeton University Press  (Dover Publications unabridged reprint of the 1949 version). Forward, “This study, like everything which could be written on mathematical invention, was first inspired by Henri Poincaré’s famous lecture before the Société de Psychologie in Paris.” Several sections of the book describe Hadamard’s interpretation of how outstanding mathematicians responded to a questionnaire he sent them:  An Inquiry Into the Working Methods of Mathematicians.  Appendix 1 lists his questions.  Appendix  2  is Albert Einstein’s reply.

ANDROID EPISTEMOLOGY. Kenneth M. Ford, Clark Glymour, and Patrick J. Hayes. 1995 American Association for Artificial Intelligence.

BABY SIGNS How to Talk With Your Baby Before Your Baby Can Talk. Linda Acredolo and Susan Goodwyn with Douglas Abrams. 2002 McGraw-Hill. Another example of how communication can be vastly simplified and accompanied by new kinds of benefits.

C+ BEYOND RIGIDITY: The Unfinished Semantic Agenda of Naming and Necessity. Scott Soames. 2002. See preface where author talks about meaning.

BLANK SLATE, THE   The Modern Denial of Human Nature
. Steven Pinker. 2002 Penguin. “The question is not whether human nature will increasingly be explained by the sciences of mind, brain, genes, and evolution, but what we are going to do with the knowledge.  What in fact are the implications for our ideals of equality, progress, responsibility, and the worth of the person?  The opponents of the sciences of human nature from the left and the right are correct about one thing:  these are vital questions.  But that is all the more reason that they be confronted not with fear and loathing but with reason.” p 135.

BETTER TOGETHER:  Restoring the American Community. Robert D. Putnam and Lewis M. Feldstein. 2003 Simon and Schuster.

BOWLING ALONE:  The Collapse and Revival of American Community.
Robert D. Putnam.  2000 Simon and Schuster.   “Drawing on vast new data from the Roper Social and Political Trends and the DDB Needham Life Style – surveys that report in detail on American’ changing behavior over the past twenty-five years – Putnam shows how we have become increasingly disconnected from family, friends, neighbors, and social structures, whether the PTA, church, recreation clubs, political parties, or bowling leagues.  Our shrinking access to the “social capital” that is the reward of communal activity and community sharing is a serious threat to our civic and personal health.” [From the book jacket]

“Putnam’s groundbreaking work shows how social bonds are the most powerful predictor of life satisfaction.” [From the book jacket].

BUILDING EXPERT SYSTEMS. Frederick Hayes-Roth, Donald A. Waterman, and Douglas B. Lenat, editors. 1983 Addison-Wesley Publishing. ". . . the first text in an explosive and exciting field." [From the book jacket]

CAMBRIDGE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF LANGUAGE, THE. David Crystal. 1987 Cambridge University Press.

C+ CHARACTER STRENGTHS AND VIRTUES: A Handbook and Classification. Christopher Peterson and Martin E.P. Seligman. 2004 Values in Action Institute. Oxford.

COGNITION OF BASIC MUSICAL STRUCTURES, THE.  David Temperley.  2001 MIT Press.  “This book addresses a fundamental question about music cognition:  how do we extract basic kinds of musical information – meter, phrase structure, counterpoint, pitch spelling, harmony, and key – from music as we hear it?  My approach … is computational.”  Preface  p ix

COGNITIVE COMPLEXITY AND THE STRUCTURE OF MUSICAL PATTERNS.   Jeffrey Pressing, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia  http://www.cs.indiana.edu./Noetica?OpenForumIssue8/Pressing.html  (accessed Nov. 16, 2005).

“Patterns are fundamental to all cognition. Whether inferred from sensory input or constructed to guide motor actions, they betray order: some are simple, others are more complex. . . .  We may be able to place the sources of patterns – such things as mental models, neural models, growth processes, and learning techniques along a simplicity-complexity dimension.”

“Are there psychological forces pushing us along this dimension?  Seemingly so.  The drive to simplify and regularize
[emphasis mine DJC] is seen in familiar Gestalt ideas of pattern goodness and Prägnanz, which hold in many situations.  The drive toward complexity [emphasis mine DJC] can be seen in the accretional processes of individual development, or the incremental sophistication of many cultural behaviors such as systems of musical design. . . , or new scientific methodologies (e.g., the incremental sophistication in brain imaging techniques).”

“Quite beyond this, the handling of complexity is a central issue in human skill and learning, providing the drive to efficiency in resource-limited processes like memory, attention, or multi-tasking.  It has parallel implications in systems engineering, organization management or adaptive neural network design problems.  In these cases, complexity is something to be circumscribed by various information-management strategies while functional performance specifications are maintained.  Yet another picture of complexity is as an emergent property, one embodying sophisticated implicit order springing up as a cumulative consequence of simple, typically nonlinear processes operating in certain ranges of their control parameters.  This is an approach derived from dynamical; systems theory, and it has been used to model phenomena as diverse as social interactions, development, perception, motor skills, and brain organization, to say nothing of areas outside psychology.”

“I am here to examine the utility and reconcilability of these different aspects of the concept of complexity.  This is to e done by examining some central questions:

“What is complexity and how is it conceived?

How can complexity be measured?

What are the consequences of complexity for human behavior?

“In addressing these questions, it will be useful to primarily draw examples [from] a single, well-structured domain, music.”  [From Pressing’s Introduction]

COGWHEELS OF THE MIND:  The Story of Venn Diagrams.  A.W.F. Edwards. 2004 Johns Hopkins University Press.

C+ COMPLEXITIES: Beyond Nature and Nurture. Susan McKinnon and Sydel Silverman, editors. 2005 University of Chicago.

COMPUTATION AND COGNITION: Toward a Foundation For Cognitive Science. Zenon W. Pylyshyn. 1984 MIT Press. “Sentential predicate-argument structures are the only known means of encoding truth-valuable assertions for which there a (partial) calculus and at least certain combinatorial aspects of a semantic theory (that is, Tarskian model-theoretic semantics).  . . .   It is important to note that no alternatives with equal expressive power have been developed.” p 195.

“These ideas, [formalist ideas in mathematics and logic], which form the basis of symbolic logic, are the only scheme we have for capturing normative patterns of reasoning.  All such formal systems require as a notation what Goodman (1968) calls a “symbol scheme.” p 198.  

 [On the opposite side, FLIPP’s chunk-and-scenarios format is non-sentential as well as non-symbolic and has more expressive power, i.e., it is clearer to system managers and users, and is far more efficient than sentential form.  DJC]

Pylyshyn is Board of Governors Professor of Cognitive Science, and Founding Director for Cognitive Science at Rutgers University.

CONCEPTUAL GRAPHS:  Past, Present, and Future. Eileen C. Way. Program in Philosophy and Computers & Cognitive Science,  State University of New York at Binghamton.  “Conceptual graphs are a logic-based knowledge representation formalism, and, as such, they are more about the form and mechanisms of representation than about the content ….” in CONCEPTUAL STRUCTURES: Current Practices (which see).  p 11.

CONCEPTUAL STRUCTURES:  Current Practices William M. Tepfenhart,  Judith P. Dick, and   John F. Sowa, editors.  Second International Conference on Conceptual Structures. 1994  Springer-Verlag.

CONCEPTUAL STRUCTURES:  Information Processing in Mind and Machine.  John F. Sowa.  1993 Addison-Wesley.   “Knowledge is more than a static encoding of facts;  it also includes the ability to use those facts in interacting with the world.” p 2.

CREATIVE THOUGHT:  An Investigation of Conceptual Structures and Processes  editors Thomas B. Ward,  Steven M. Smith, and   Jyotsna Vaid.  1997 The American Psychological Association.  “This book … is primarily a collaborative effort to understand the nature of some of the basic cognitive processes and structures that underlie creative and noncreative form of thought.  It is more about those processes and structures than about creativity in its own right.  It is only by understanding the basic underlying principles of cognitive functioning … that one may … achieve a complete understanding of creativity.”   p 4.

“According to the creative cognition view, creativity in all domains, including science, technology, medicine, the arts, and day-to-day living, emerges from a relatively small set of basic mental operations.”   p 4.

“The contributions to this volume can be thought of as exemplars of the creative cognition approach.”   p 5.

“[Creativity] may be … thought of as the outcome of the operation of all these processes in concert.”   p 6.

“Creativity may … be … thought of as the entire system by which processes operate on structures to produce outcomes that are novel but nevertheless rooted in existing knowledge.”   p 18.

CREATIVITY AND LEARNING AS SKILLS, NOT TALENTS.  George M. Prince.  Reprinted from the June-July and September-October 1980 issues of The Phillips-Exeter Bulletin.  Prince presents his thinking about (1.) the Safe-keeping Self vs. the Experimental Self and their balance or conflict in creating change, (2.) Routine Thinking vs. Speculative Thinking, (3.) Learning and its Similarity to Creativity, and (4.) Actions That Discourage Speculation/ Creativity and Actions That Encougarge Speculation/ Creativity.  “I am convinced that just about everyone has a large potential for creativity that has been submerged by the socialization we all go through.”

Prince is the founder of Synetics Inc., Cambridge, MA, a consulting group on many different aspects of applied creativity

DEFENDING SCIENCE – WITHIN REASON: Between Scientism and Cynicism.  Susan Haack 2003  Prometheus.“Fallible and imperfect as it is, science is a manifestation of the human mind at its cognitive best. But it is no wonder that it evokes fear and resentment as well as admiration. It imposes an intellectual discipline unwelcome to many of us, and threatens some of our cherished illusions about ourselves. We are disappointed when it fails to produce, on demand, the fruits we most want, and fearful when we realize that its fruits may have unpleasant, or in some cases, disastrous side-effects, especially if abused. We feel threatened, I think, not by the successes of science and by its failures; not surprisingly, perhaps, since it, and we, are only human.”  p 325.

DESCARTES’ ERROR:  Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain.  Antonio R. Domasio. 1994 Putnam.  “I began writing this book to propose that reason may not be as pure as most of us think it is or wish it were, that emotions and feelings may not be intruders in the bastion of reason at all; they may be enmeshed in its networks, for worse and for better.”  p xii.

DEMON-HAUNTED WORLD, THE  Science as a Candle in the Dark.   Carl Sagan. 1995  Random House.

DEVIANT LOGIC, FUZZY LOGIC: Beyond The Formalism.  Susan Haack. 1974, 1996  University of Chicago Press.

“[I]t is quite possible that a person should doubt every principle of inference…. [T]hough a logical formula may sound very obviously true to him, he may feel a little uncertain whether some subtle deception may not lurk in it.  Indeed, I certainly have, among he most cultivated and respected of my readers, those who deny that those laws of logic which men generally admit have universal validity.  But I address myself, also, to those who have no such doubts…” [ C.S. Peirce, ‘On the Grounds of Validity of the Laws of Logic’, [CP] 5.318, 1868].  [Haack p. vi].

[Haack, from her 1996 Introduction page ix:] “I remain convinced of its [her DEVIANT LOGIC text’s] central contentions:  it is possible that classical logic should turn out to be in need of revision;  but none of the deviant systems is so well-motivated philosophically as seriously to threaten its position.” 

DIAGRAMMATIC REASONING:  Cognitive and Computational PerspectivesB. Chandrasekaran, Janice Glasgow, and N. Hari Narayanan, editors.  1995 The AAAI Press.  “The subject matter of this book is how diagrammatic (or pictorial) representation can be used in problem solving and reasoning.”  p xv.

Foreword by Herbert Simon:  “Most thinking in which human beings engage, even in highly mathematical fields like mathematics or economics, is not rigorous in the sense in which logicians and pure mathematicians use that term. … In a society that is preoccupied with ‘Information Superhighways,’ a deep understanding of diagrammatic reasoning will be essential to keep the traffic moving on those highways …” p xi.

DIAGRAMMING TECHNIQUES FOR ANALYSTS AND PROGRAMMERS. James Martin and Carma McClure. 1985 Prentice-Hall, London.

DISCRETE THOUGHTS: Essays on Mathematics, Science, and Philosophy. Mark Kac, Gian-Carlo Rota, and Jacob T. Schwartz. 1986 Springer-Verlag.

DON’T MAKE ME THINK:  A Common Sense Approach to Web Usability. Steve Krug. 2000  New Riders Publishing.

DREAMS OF REASON, THE: The Computer and the Rise of the Sciences of Complexity. Heinz R. Pagels. 1988 Simon & Schuster.

ELEMENTS OF SOCIAL SCIENTIFIC THINKING: 3rd edition. Kenneth R. Hoover. 1984 St. Martin's Press.

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF GAMES AND GAMBLING: A Modern Hoyle for Sophisticated Gamers. Edwin Silberstang. 1996 Cardoza Publishing.

EVERYBODY WINS: 393 Non-Competitive Games For Young Children. Jeffrey Sobel. 1983 Walker.

EXPLANATION AND COGNITION.   editors Frank C. Keil and Robert A. Wilson. 2000 MIT.  From Keil and Wilson’s paper  Explaining Explanation: “There is a sense both that a given successful  explanation satisfies a cognitive need, and that a questionable or dubious explanation does not.  There are also compelling intuitions about what makes good explanations in terms of their form, that is, a sense of when they are structured correctly.”  p 1.

In their paper The Shadows and Shallows of Explanation, Keil and Wilson say, “Despite its pervasiveness and centrality to human life, explanation remains one of the most unexplored topics in the cognitive sciences.  In psychology in particular, explanation . . . is a topic that has been mostly discussed only incidentally as researchers have investigated related phenomena such as problem solving,  theory formation,  text comprehension,  concepts,  and expertise.”  p 87.

FORMS OF EXPLANATION: Rethinking the Questions in Social Theory. Alan Garfinkel. 1981 Yale Univ.

FRAMEWORK FOR FORMAL ONTOLOGY.  Barry Smith and Kevin Mulligan.  1983 D. Reidel Publishing Co.  “Form and matter can therefore be distinguished on two distinct levels: on  the level of truths, and on the level of things.1 Formal ontology consists in the investigation of formal structures or relations on this second level.”

GODEL, ESCHER, BACH: An Eternal Golden Braid. Douglas R. Hofstadter. 1979 Basic Books.

GÖDEL: A LIFE OF LOGIC. John L. Casti and Werner DePauli. 2000 Persius.  “Kurt Gödel was an intellectual giant.  His Incompleteness Theorem turned not only mathematics, but also the whole world of science and philosophy on its head.  Shattering hopes that logic would, in the end, allow us a complete understanding of the universe, Gödel’s theorem also raised many provocative questions:  What are the limits of rational thought?  Can we ever fully understand the machines we build?  Or the inner workings of our own mind?  How should mathematicians proceed in the absence of logical certainty about their results?” [From the book jacket.]  John L. Casti, a member of the faculty of both the Santa Fe Institute and the Technical University of Vienna, is one of the most well regarded researchers and science writers of our time.  Werner DePauli is University Assistant and Oberrat of the Institute of Statistics and Computer Science of the University of Vienna.  He is the author of several books in German about Gödel and has produced a film on Gödel for German television. 

GOODBYE, DESCARTES:  The End of Logic and the Search for a New Cosmology of the Mind.     Keith Devlin. 1997 Wiley.  “What constitutes an acceptable or adequate explanation … for a sociologist may not be an acceptable or adequate explanation to a mathematician, and vice versa;  indeed, in practice, it is highly unlikely that the explanation for the one will be acceptable for the other.”  p 257.

GRAMMATICAL MAN: Information, Entropy, Language, and Life. Jeremy Campbell. 1982 Simon & Schuster.

GROW OR DIE George T. Lock Land. 1973  Random House “This is a book about man;  a creature who fouls his own nest while flying to the moon, an ambivalent being who grasps the future with one hand while clinging to the past with the other;  who does all these things with a mind powerful enough to continually expand his domination of Nature but is unable to explain why.  Subject to seemingly blind and numberless forces, and self-evident but nameless quests, impelled from within and propelled from without, Man continues to seek for answers to his unique enigmas.  This book is part of that endless search for the inner Grail, an exploration from which there is no turning back.” [Overview] p 3.

“. . . [T]his book outlines a theory on the origin, nature, and nurture of Man that sees apparently conflicting achievements and failures as integral parts of the whole of Man and his mission.  It will show that such things as territorial ambitions and hopes for world cooperation are not mutually exclusive , but are inclusive and reconcilable aspects of the laws that govern all life and all behavior.” p 3.

“Several years ago, Abraham Maslow concluded that there was a scientifically discoverable basis to man’s unique properties.  As father of the “Third Force” in psychology,  he recognized the urgent need for Man to explain, understand, and encourage such baffling phenomena as creativity, joy, and dignity.  He felt that the pattern of relationships between these human experiences of  and the biological roots of life could reveal a unifying concept of all of life,  a concept to help answer many questions that have puzzled Man from the beginning of history.” pp 3,4.

“We call the theory that begins to integrate these relationships ‘transformation.’ ”  p 4.

“Like a thirsty man in the middle of an ocean, we are surrounded with knowledge in a form we cannot digest.”  p 5.

“Transformation is an attempt to reunite the artificial with the natural,  philosophy with psychology,  psychology with biology,  science with art,  and emotion with reason.  This new union is a part of the revolution of science that has leapfrogged Darwin and re-explained Mendel;  that has produced an abundance of new facts in anthropology, paleontology, biology, and ethology;  and that has shown that centuries of assumptions about Man’s origin and nature are little more than romantic prejudices.” 
p 6.

“The diversity of all life depends on the quantity and sequences of only two pairs of four nucleic acids in the heredity information of DNA in chromosomes.” p 6.

“There is no doubt that the underlying organization of all living beings conforms in every detail.  Beyond that, however, the emerging hybrid sciences of cybernetics,  general systems,  biochemistry, biophysics, and molecular genetics have confirmed that all life forms share the same behavioral processes.”  p 6.

HANDBOOK OF ACADEMIC LEARNING: Construction of Knowledge. Gary E. Phye, editor. 1997 Academic Press.

HANDBOOK OF LITERACY AND TECHNOLOGY:  Transformations in a Post-Typographic World.  David Reinking, Michael C. McKenna, Linda D. Labbo, and Ronald D. Kieffer, editors.    1998 Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.  This has six parts, each title beginning with the word Transforming:  I. Texts;  II.  Readers and Writers;  III. Schools and Classrooms;  IV. Instruction;  V. Society;  VI. Literacy Research. 
“There is a dearth of Research and Scholarship Available to Understand and Guide Technological Transformations of Literacy.” p xxvii.

“Several forces have brought about and continue to influence transformations of literacy in the workplace.  These intertwined economic, organizational, and technological forces have changed the nature of most work.  Among these forces are participation in the global marketplace, democratization of workplace decision making, synchronous production, and multiple roles on most jobs.  New technology permeates the work activities of nearly half the adult population and creates new literacy demands for communication, gathering information, solving daily work-related problems, and monitoring performance.”  Larry Mikulecky and Jamie R. Kirkley in their chapter Changing Workplaces, Changing Classes: The New Role of Technology in Workplace Literacy  in the HANDBOOK OF LITERACY AND TECHNOLOGY  p 304.

HIDDEN CONNECTIONS, THE  A Science for Sustainable Living.  Fritjof Capra.  2002 Random House.   “My objective in this volume has been to develop a conceptual framework that integrates the biological, cognitive, and social dimensions of life:  a framework that enables us to adopt a systemic approach to some of the critical issues of our time.  The analysis of living systems in terms of four interconnected perspectives – form, matter, process, and meaning – makes it possible to apply a unified understanding of life to phenomena in the realm of matter, as well as to the phenomena in the realm of meaning.” p 263.

Capra establishes “ … a framework in which we can understand and solve some of the most important issues of our time.  Capra posits that in order to sustain life, the principles underlying our social institutions must be consistent with the broader organization of nature.” [cover].

C+ HOW ENGLISH WORKS: A Grammar Practice Book. With answers. Michael Swan and Catherine Walter. 1997 Oxford. 14th impression 2004. “The purpose of this book. How English Works is for learners of English who want to speak and write more correctly. It contains: • short clear explanations of the rules of English grammar • examples of correct use • exercises. What kind of English does the book teach? We teach the grammar of everyday spoken and written British English. We have used the British National Corpus – a collection of 100 million words of modern spoken and written English – to help us make sure that lour rules and examples give a true picture of the present-day language. For information about differences between British and American English, see [Michael Swan’s book] Practical English Usage [Oxford]. How important is grammar? Grammar is not the most important thing in the world, but if you make a lot of mistakes you may be more difficult to understand, and some kinds of people may look down on you or not take you seriously. ...” p 1

[DJC note: Swan’s and Walter’s interesting book presents more than 270 rules on how to correctly design English expressions. It seems not to provide rules for making statements guaranteed to make sense or that truthful. It has three self-tests on three levels – basic, intermediate, and advanced. And, it contains many cartoons I think are excellent.].

I THINK, THEREFORE I LAUGH: The Flip Side of Philosophy. John Allen Paulos. 2000  Columbia University Press.

IDEAS AND INFORMATION: Managing in a High-Tech World. Arno Penzias. 1989 Norton.

IMAGERY AND MENTAL MODELS.  (article in DIAGRAMMATIC REASONING, which see).  Yulin Qin and Herbert Simon, Carnegie Mellon University. “For some decades, imagery has been an active research area in cognitive science. … However, there are only a few  publications of experimental work concerned mainly with imagery in problem solving.”  p 403.

INDISCRETE THOUGHTS. Gian-Carlo Rota. 1997 Birkhäuser.

INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC: 10th edition. Irving M. Copi and Carl Cohen. 1998 Simon & Schuster.

KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION: Logical, Philosophical, and Computational Foundations. John F. Sowa. 2000 Brooks/Cole. www.brookscole.com Sowa integrates logic, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science into this study of knowledge and its translation to a computable form.

KNOWLEDGE VISUALIZATION FROM CONCEPTUAL STRUCTURES.   W.R. Cyre,  S. Balachander, and A. Thakar.  Virginia Tech,  Bradley  Department of Electrical Engineering.   In CONCEPTUAL STRUCTURES: Current Practices (which see)   “While small conceptual graphs (less than a dozen concepts) are not difficult to understand, more complex graphs can be quite difficult to interpret,  particularly when denoted in the textual, linear form…. The subject of this paper is the automatic generation of visual interpretation from conceptual graphs.”  p 275.

“Definition:  A connective is a line which connects (is incident to) two icons,  and may have a texture or style attribute (e.g., solid, broken, invisible, arrow, plain}.  Connectives may also have labels.”  p 279.
LANGUAGE INSTINCT, THE:  How the Mind Creates Language.   Steven Pinker. 1994  Harper  “The crucial intervening steps come from my own professional specialty, the study of language development in children.  The crux of the argument is that complex language is universal because children actually reinvent it, generation after generation – not because they are taught,  not because they are generally smart, not because it is useful to them, but because they just can’t help it.  Let me now take you down this trail of evidence.”  p 12.

LANGUAGE : Introductory Readings.  Virginia P. Clark, Paul A. Eschholz, and Alfred F. Roa, editors.  1972 St. Martin’s Press.   “This collection of introductory readings reflects the changing attitudes toward language through its treatment of five major topics:  1) animal communication, the human mind, and language and culture;  2) the systems of grammar;  3) words and how they are used;  4) regional, functional, and social dialect variations; and  5) the gestures and spatial relationships that complement verbal language.  These five sections provide a basis for a meaningful study of language.”  [Preface].

LANGUAGES OF THE MIND:  Essays on Representation.  Ray Jackendoff. 1992 MIT Press “The final chapter takes up a long-standing conflict between philosophical and psychological approaches to the study of mind, arguing that mental representations should be regarded purely in terms of the combinatorial organization of brain states, and that the philosophical insistence on the intentionality of mental; states should be abandoned.” [From the book jacket.] 

“To understand the workings of the mind, we must study not just the quantity of information in the brain but also, very specifically, the forms of the information the brain processes, stores, and retrieves.”  p 2

“The idea that a meaning is a sort of mental representation is . . . not universally accepted.  Perhaps the most prestigious tradition in the study of meaning grows out of Frege’s “Sense and Reference” (1892), where he very carefully dissociates the “sense” of an expression – what he takes to be an objective, publicly available entity --  from the “ideas” that users of the expression carry in their heads, which are subjective and variable.” p 2

LAWS OF FORM. G. Spencer Brown. 1972  Julian Press.  First Published in Great Britain in 1969 by George Allen and Unwin. From Brown’s opening remarks, “A Note on the Mathematical Approach.”  ”The theme of this book is that a universe comes into being when a space is severed or taken apart. The skin of a living organism cuts off an outside from an inside. So does the circumference of a circle in a plane. By tracing the way we represent such a severance, we can begin to reconstruct, with an accuracy and coverage that appear almost uncanny, the basic forms underlying linguistic, mathematical, physical, and biological science, and can begin to see how the familiar laws of lour own experience follow inexorably from the original act of severance.  The act itself is already remembered, even if unconsciously, as our first attempt to distinguish different things in a world where, in the first place, the boundaries can be drawn anywhere we please.  At this stage the universe cannot be distinguished from how we act upon it, and the world may seem like shifting sand beneath our feet.” p v.

“Although all forms, and thus all universes, are possible, and any particular form is mutable, it becomes evident that the laws relating such forms are the same in any universe.  It is this sameness, the idea that we can find a reality which is independent of how the universe actually appears, that lends such fascination to the study of mathematics.” p v.

“G. Spencer Brown attended London Hospital Medical College and Trinity College Cambridge.  He has degrees in philosophy and psychology.  He did postgraduate work with Russell and Wittgenstein, and was elected to the Perrott Studentship in psychical research. . . . He is [1972] a chess half-blue, holds two world records as a glider pilot, and was a sports correspondent. From 1953 to 1958 he was a philosophy don at Oxford and later, as a pupil of Dr. R. D. Laing, he studied and praticed psychotherapy.” [Book jacket]

LEARNABILITY AND COGNITION:  The Acquisition of Argument Structure.   Steven Pinker. 1989 MIT.  “Language is created anew each generation, so details of grammar, even subtle and intricate ones, are products of the minds of children and bear the stamp of their learning abilities. . . . This book is about a paradox in language acquisition. . . . The strategy I will follow comes out of the learnability approach to language acquistion. . . . This approach focuses on the logical nature of the task facing the child as he or she tries to learn a language and on the mental representations and processes that make such learning successful.  I will pursue the solution to the learning paradox relentlessly, trying to create a trail that leads from the prelinguistic child to the adult’s command of subtle discriminations of linguistic structure.  Though parts of the trail may be rough going, what is most important is that each segment link up with the next to form an unbroken path of explanation from children’s experience to adults’ knowledge.” p 1, 2.

LOGIC AND REPRESENTATION. Robert C. Moore. 1995 Center for the Study of Language and Information, Leland Stanford Junior University.

LOGIC AND VISUAL INFORMATION. Eric M. Hammer. 1995 Center for the Study of Language and Information Leland Stanford Junior University. Good description and examples of Venn Diagrams, Euler Circles, Higraphs, and Peirce Diagrams.

LOGIC MADE EASY:   How to Know When Language Deceives You Deborah J. Bennett. 2004  Norton.  “Crime is common.  Logic is rare.” p 11. [Sherlock Holmes in The Adventure of The Copper Beeches BY Arthur Conan Doyle] “Many persons who think logically express themselves illogically, and in so doing produce the same effect upon their hearers or readers as if they had thought wrongly.”  [Augustus De Morgan.]   p 192

C+ MACHINERY OF TALK, THE: Charles Peirce and the Sign Hypothesis. Anne Freadman. 2004 Stanford University Press. Dr. Freadman is Associate Professor, Faculty of Arts - School of Languages, Department of French, Italian and Spanish Studies, University of Melbourne.

MAPPING THE MIND: The Secrets of the Human Brain and How it Works.  Joel Davis. 1997  Birch Lane Press.  “The more than 100 billion nerve cells and trillion supporting cells that make up your brain and mine constitute structure in the known universe. … The number of interconnections among the brain’s nerve cells is greater than the total number of atomic particles in the cosmos.”  p 1.

MAPPING THE MIND: Domain Specificity In Cognition and Culture. Lawrence A. Hirschfeld and Susan A. Gelman, editors. 1994 Cambridge University Press.

MATH GENE, THE:   How Mathematical Thinking Developed and Why Numbers are Like Gossip.  Keith Devlin. 2000  Persius.   “The patterns studied by the mathematician can be either real or imagined, visual or mental, static or dynamic, qualitative or quantitative, utilitarian or recreational.  They arise from the depths of space and time, and from the workings of the human mind.   Different kinds of patterns give rise to different branches of mathematics.   For example, number theory studies (and arithmetic uses) the patterns of number and counting;  geometry uses the patterns of shape;  calculus allows us to handle patterns of motion;  logic studies patterns of reasoning;  probability theory deals with patterns of chance;  topology studies patterns of closeness and position….  The complexity and abstraction of most mathematical patterns make anything other than symbolic notation prohibitively cumbersome to use.”  p 8.

“Modern mathematics books are awash with symbols, but mathematical notation no more is mathematics than musical notation is music.”  p 9.

MATHEMATICAL LOGIC. (topic) Grolier Encyclopedia 1996 Jack Cumbee.

MATHEMATICS:  The Search for Order in Life, Mind, and the Universe.   Keith Devlin. 1997  Scientific American Library.  A Bertrand Russell tongue-in-cheek quotation (but making a point):“Thus mathematics may be defined as the subject in which we never know what we are talking about, nor whether what we are saying is true.”  p 53.

MATHEMATICS, THE SCIENCE OF PATTERNS: The Search For Order In Life, Mind, and The Universe. 1994 Scientific American Library Distributor W. H. Freeman - out of print.

MENTAL LEAPS: Analogy in Creative Thought. Keith Holyoak and Paul Thagard. 1995 MIT Press.

MIND DOESN’T WORK THAT WAY, THE: The Scope and Limits of Computational Psychology. Jerry A. Fodor. 2000 MIT Press.

MIND MATTERS: Exploring the World of Artificial Intelligence. 1997 James P. Hogan Ballentine.

MIRROR WORLDS: Or The Day Software Puts The Universe In A Shoebox. How It Will Happen And What It Will Mean. David Gelernter. 1991 Oxford University Press.

MODELS OF THOUGHT. Herbert A. Simon. 1970 Yale University.

MODULARITY OF MIND. Jerry A. Fodor. 1983 MIT Press.

MOTHER TONGUE: How Humans Create Language. Joel Davis. 1994 Birch Lane Press.

MUSE IN THE MACHINE, THE   Computerizing the Poetry of Human Thought.   David Gelernter. 1994  Free Press.  “ … introduces for the first time a model of emotion into the computer and explains the enormous ramifications this model holds for future applications.”  [Jacket].

NEW INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES. Dimitras Chorafas. 1992 Van Nostrand Reinhold.

NEW YORK TIMES: Science Timesand Circuits sections. Outstanding.

OWNER’S MANUAL FOR THE BRAIN, THE:  Everyday Applications from Mind-Brain Research 2nd edition.  Pierce J. Howard.  2000 Bard Press.  “How is this book unique?  First, it stands with one foot in the research camp and the other in practice.  Second, it reflects my twenty-plus years’ experience as a management consultant. … Third, I have included only brain research findings that have widespread practical applications. … Fourth, for the most part, the structure is aimed at those who will use the research, not the researchers themselves.”  Preface p 16.

OXFORD HANDBOOK OF METAPHYSICS, THE.  Michael J. Lewis and Dean W. Zimmerman, editors.   2003  Oxford University Press.  “The Oxford Handbook of Metaphysics offers the most authoritative and compelling guide in this diverse and fertile field of philosophy.  Twenty-four of the world’s most distinguished specialists provide brand-new essays about ‘what there is’:  what kinds of things there are, and what relations hold among entities falling under various categories.  They give the latest word on such topics as identity, modality, time, causation, persons and minds, freedom, and vagueness.  The Handbook’s unrivalled breadth and depth make it the definitive reference work for students and academics across the philosophical spectrum.” [From the book jacket]

Michael J. Loux is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Notre Dame, Indiana.
Dean W. Zimmerman is Associate Professor of Philosophy at Rutgers University, New Jersey.

PATTERNS OF THINKING. Nancy and Gerald Messner. 1968 Wadsworth.

PATTERNS IN THE MIND:  Language and Human Nature. Ray Jackendoff  1994 Basic Books.

“The central idea of this book is that our language ability is stored in the brain as a set of unconscious patterns, or a “mental grammar. “  How do children learn this grammar?  Ray Jackendoff demonstrates that this remarkable feat involves a rich interweaving of nature and nurture:  children come to the task of learning language equipped with an innate, genetically encoded “Universal Grammar” that provides the building blocks for all human languages.  Patterns in the Mind emphasizes the grammatical commonalities across languages, both spoken and signed, and discusses the implications for our understanding of language acquisition and loss.” [From the book jacket]

 “Conclusions. Our goal . . . has been to show that the characteristics of the human mind revealed by language apply to other aspects of the mind as well – that language is but one example of a broader human nature.  We have now seen that our capacity for thought, the part of us we often consider most human, is governed by underlying principles a lot like those for language.

1.      Our thoughts are built out of a finite set of unconscious patterns which give us he potential for thinking an infinite number of thoughts of indefinite complexity.

2.      These patterns in turn are constructed from an innate Universal Grammar of concepts, some details of which we have been able to work out here: figure--ground organization, the extension of figure—ground organization to abstract concepts, and the organization of criteria into ideals with context-sensitive gray areas around the fringes.

3.      Our way of understanding the world – including our way of  learning about the world—is a consequence of this unconscious organization;  this often comes in conflict with our conscious sense of how we should understand the world.

Unlike language, music, or vision, though, we have not been able to show that there are specialized brain areas for conceptual thought.  I assume that this awaits a more mature neuroscience.” p 203.

[See Daniel C. Dennett’s review of Jackendoff’s book PATTERNS IN THE MIND in the Internet section of this bibliography].

[At the time of the publication of PATTERNS IN THE MIND, Jackendoff, a linguist and theoretical psychologist, was Professor of Linguistics at Brandeis University. More recently he became Professor of Philosophy at Tufts University.  He is also a professional musician who has been a solo performer with the Boston Pops Orchestra.]

PATTERNS, THINKING, and COGNITION. Howard Margolis. 1987 University of Chicago Press.

C+ PERCEPTION OF FACES, OBJECTS, AND SCENES: Analytic and Holistic Processes. Mary A. Peterson and Gillian Rhodes, editors. 2003 Oxford. “This is the first volume to focus on the current state of the debate on parts versus wholes as it exists in the field of visual perception by bringing together the views of the leading researchers. Too frequently, researchers work in only one domain, so they are unaware of the ways holistic and analytic processes are defined in different areas....” [Book Jacket]

“Analytic and Holistic Processing – The View Through Different Lenses We readily recognize the faces of our friends and the objects around us. We do so effortlessly, but these cannot be simple tasks for our visual systems. Faces are all extremely similar as visual patterns. We see objects from different viewpoints and in different arrangements. How does the visual system solve these problems? the contributors of this volume attempt to answer this question by considering how analytic and holistic processes contribute to the perception of faces, objects, and scenes. [FLIPP Explainers might be thought of as ‘scenes’ whose illustrators have designed readers’ eye movements according to very simple rules – DJC] The role of parts and wholes in perception has been studied for a century, beginning with the debate between structuralists who championed the role of elements and Gestalt psychologists who emphasized the role of wholes. In this volume we bring together 21st-century views. The contributors ... ask whether analytic and holistic processes contribute differently to the perception of faces and objects, They also consider whether different mechanisms code holistic and analytic information or whether or whether a single universal system can suffice. The contributors to this collection offer some intriguing answers to these questions.” [Introduction]

PERSPECTIVES ON THE COMPUTER REVOLUTION: 2nd Edition. Zenon W. Pylyshyn, and Liam W. Bannon, editors. 1989 Ablex Publishing.

PHILOSOPHY IN A NEW KEY: A Study in the Symbolism of Reason, Rite, and Art. 3rd ed. Suzanne K. Langer. Harvard University Press. 1982.

PHILOSOPHY IN THE FLESH: The Embodied Mind and It’s Challenge to Western Thought.  George Lakoff and Mark Johnson. 1999  Basic Books.   “A large part of this book will be devoted to exploring in detail what the hidden hand of our unconscious conceptual system looks like and how it shapes not only everyday commonsense reasoning but also philosophy itself. … What is startling is that, even for the most basic of concepts, the hidden hand of the unconscious mind uses metaphor to define our unconscious metaphysics – the metaphysics used not just by ordinary people, but by philosophers to make sense of these concepts. … In short, philosophical theories are largely the product of the hidden hand of the cognitive subconscious.”  P 14.

PRACTICAL REASONING: Goal-Driven, Knowledge-Based, Action-Guiding Argumentation. Douglas N. Walton. 1990 Rowan & Littlefield.

PSYCHOLOGY OF COMPUTEVISION, THE. Patrick H. Winston. 1975 McGraw-Hill.

PSYCHOLOGY OF EVERYDAY THINGS, THE.  Donald A. Norman. 1988  Basic Books  “[about] an outgrowth of my repeated frustrations with the operation of everyday things and my growing knowledge of how to apply experimental psychology and cognitive science.”  p viii.

QUIDDITIES: An Intermittently Philosophical Dictionary.  W. V. Quine. 1987 Belknap.  “This is one of a loosely linked series of loose-knit books inspired by Voltaire’s Philosophical Dictionary. . . . The one trait that the book shares with a true dictionary, namely alphabetical order in lieu of structure, brings grateful release from the constraint of linear exposition.  Cross-references abound, but they refer forward and backward indiscriminately, there being no presumption that the reader will read eighty-three pieces in one order than another.”  [From the Preface.]

W. V. Quine [now deceased, was]  the Edgar Peirce Professor of Philosophy, Emeritus, Harvard University.  He wrote seventeen books . . . There are forty-four translations into other languages. [Book jacket]

RETHINKING COMMUNICATION. The Human Side of Information 1989 Editors Dervin, Grossberg, O'Keefe, Wartella. from the 1985 annual conference of the International Communication Association.

ROBOT'S DILEMMA, THE: The Frame Problem in Artificial Intelligence. Zenon W. Pylyshyn, editor 1987 Ablex.

ROBOT'S DILEMMA REVISITED, THE: The Frame Problem in Artificial Intelligence. Kenneth M. Ford and Zenon W. Pylyshyn. 1996 Ablex.

SCIENCE AND REASON. Henry E. Kyburg, Jr. 1990 Oxford University Press.

SCIENCES OF THE ARTIFICIAL, THE: 2nd ed. Herbert A. Simon. 1981 MIT Press.

SEEDS OF INNOVATION, THE. Elaine Dundon. 2002 American Management Association.

SEEING AND VISUALIZING:  It’s Not What You Think.   Zenon Pylyshyn. 2003 MIT Press. “This book is about how we see and how we visualize.  But it is equally about how we are easily misled by our everyday experience of these faculties.  Galileo is said to have proclaimed (Galilei, 1610/1983; quoted in Slezak, 2002), ‘ … if men had been born blind, philosophy would be more perfect, because it would lack many false assumptions that have been taken from the sense of sight.’ ”  p  xi.

“ . . . I argue that any form of reasoning, including any form by visualizing, must meet the constraints of productivity and systematicity.  This leads to the inevitable conclusion that reasoning with mental imagery or reasoning by visualizing or ‘visual thinking’ requires a combinatorial system—a language of thought—that itself is not in any sense ‘pictorial.’  I argue that … the evidence does not support the assumption that visualization is special in the way that current theorists have assumed it to be.”  p xv.

“ . . .   Pylyshyn argues that seeing is different from thinking and that to see is not, as it may seem intuitively, to create an inner replica of the world.  Pylyshyn examines how we see and how we visualize and why the scientific account does not align with the way these processes seem to us ‘from the inside.’  In doing so, he addresses issues in vision science, cognitive psychology, philosophy of mind, and cognitive neuroscience.” [From the book jacket.] Pylyshyn is Board of Governors Professor of Cognitive Science, and Founding Director for Cognitive Science at Rutgers University.

SIMPLER SYNTAX. 2005 Peter W. Culicover and Ray Jackendoff   Oxford   

“All linguistic theories posit – at least implicitly – three essential levels of representation:  phonological (sound) structure, syntactic (grammatical) structure, and semantic (meaning) structure.” p 12.

[DJC comment:  A fourth level exists:  FLIPP’s chunked-overlapping-scenario structure.  Chunks and the scenarios they form can be represented without symbols, signs, words, phrases, clauses, sentences, paragraphs, or parts of speech.  Chunks are analogous to individual blocks in comic strips.]

“SIMPLER SYNTAX is addressed to linguists of all persuasions.  It will also be of central interest to those concerned with language in psychology, human biology, evolution, computational science, and artificial intelligence.  . . . The book offers a new and compelling perspective on the structure of human language.  The fundamental issue it addresses is the balance between syntax and semantics, between structure and derivation, and between rule systems and lexicon.  It puts forward new basis for syntactic theory, drawing on a wide range of frameworks, and charts new directions for research.” [From the book jacket] 

Peter W. Culicover is Humanities Distinguished Professor in Linguistics, Chair of the Department of Linguistics, and founder and former director of the Center for Cognitive Science at the Ohio State University. Ray Jackendoff is Professor of Philosophy and Co-director of the Center for Cognitive Studies at Tufts University.

SIMPLICITY AND COMPLEXITY IN GAMES OF THE INTELLECT. Lawrence B. Slobodkin. 1992Harvard University Press. “Slobodkin proposes that the best intellectual work is done as if it were a game on a simplified playing field.” [This is an extremely useful analogy for explaining FLIPP Explainers. The phrase massive simplification, used in the title of this paper, is borrowed from Slobodkin’s book. DJC.]

C+ SYMBOLIC LOGIC Part 1: Elementary, 1896. Fifth Edition Part 2: Advanced, never previously published. Lewis Carroll (The Rev. C. Ludwig Dodgson 1832-1898) 1977 by Philip Dodgson Jacques and Elizabeth Christie. Edited 1997 with annotations, an introduction, and arrangement by William Warren Bartley, III [show birth/ death dates from Wikipedia]. Dedicated to the memory of Aristotle. Clark N. Potter, Inc., Publishers, NY. (Crown)

“Part 1 was published in 1896. Part 2, on which Carroll was working at the time of his death in January 1989, was never published, and vanished without a trace around the turn of the century.” [From the book jacket]

“Eighteen years ago, Professor W. W. Bartley, III, discovered part of the missing manuscript. Since then he was able to track down the missing galley proofs and manuscript for Part 2. They had been widely disbursed, and pieces turned up in Oxford, New York City, Princeton, and Texas. They are published here for the first time ....”

“This edition ... contains eight important versions of the famous Barber Shop Paradox ... [and] over a hundred brand new exercises and logical problems and paradoxes by Lewis Carroll... published here for the first time.”

“William Warren Bartley, III, is [was] professor of philosophy at California State University, Hayward. From 1967 to 1973 he taught at the University of Pittsburgh, where he was professor of philosophy and of history and philosophy of science, and associate director of the Center for the Philosophy of Science. Previous appointments include University of London, the University of California, and Cambridge University. A graduate of Harvard and the London School of Economics, he is the author of four books and many scholarly articles. He has held research fellowships from the Fulbright Commission. the American Council of Learned Societies, the University of California Institute for the Humanities, the Danforth Foundation and other bodies.”

THINKING IN COMPLEXITY: The Complex Dynamics of Matter, Mind, and Mankind. Klaus Mainzer. 1994 Springer-Verlag.

THINKING SKILLS INSTRUCTION: Concepts And Techniques. Marcia Heiman, and Joshua Slomianko, editors. 1987 NEA publication. 370.152 t443.

THINKING VISUALLY: A Strategy Manual for Problem Solving. Robert H. McKim. 1980 Lifetime Learning Publications.

THREE SCIENTISTS AND THEIR GODS Looking for Meaning in an Age of Information. Robert Wright. 1988 Random House.

TOWARD A THEORY OF INSTRUCTION. Jerome S. Bruner. 1966 Harvard University Press.

C+ TRACKING REASON: Proof, Consequence, and Truth. Jody Azzouni. 2006 Oxford University Press.

“Twentieth-century Anglo-American philosophy began, as it has been famously put, with a linguistic turn with the simultaneous concern, on the part of G.E. Moore and Bertrand Russell, for language. Moore’s concern was with the natural languages we speak; Russell’s with formal languages. There arose almost immediately a tension between the apparent demands of the mother tongue, and the needs of the sciences which seemed -- especially in mathematics -­ to drive us beyond the bounds of that tongue.[1] I sometimes think the tension in question emerged (in the course of the last century) most clearly in two extreme poles of doing philosophy the ordinary-language sort of approach exemplified by (many but not all) followers of Wittgenstein, and the regimentation style of philosophy exemplified by (many but not all) followers of Quine.

Illuminating mathematical practice has been at the center of the regimentation approach -- for it was projects concerned with getting clear about the logic and epistemology of mathematics that motivated the study of formal languages to begin with.  It’s ironic, therefore, that one form of the maverick rebellion against regimentation was the simple observation that the resulting formalisms seemed wildly disconnected from both the ways that mathematicians reason -- as, that is, they continue to reason in the vernacular -- and the ways they come to know what they know.

I've tried to show our inescapable needs both to continue reasoning within the vernacular and to regiment ourselves out of that very vernacular while simultaneously still using it. Ordinary language isn't an ideal device for communication any more than the human back is an ideal device for standing upright-and for similar reasons: They are gerrymandered products of evolution. On the other hand, we are no more likely to desert human languages in the near future than we are to desert our own bodies.

Still there remains the question of how we successfully reason using human languages-languages that in so many ways are clearly not designed to optimally reflect good inferences. I've provided two specific illustrations of how we do it: The first was the culmination of part I, which described how we can continue to successfully reason in a logically inconsistent medium. The second was the topic of part II, which described how the proofs of mathematics, couched in the vernacular, indicate mechanically recognizable derivations. In both cases, the suggestion was made that our practice is in accord with (a theory of) a (largely nonexistent) structure that is optimally designed for successful inference, and that the good reasoners among us draw conclusions that cor relate to what our inferences would yield if they were couched in that structure. In the process we (almost automatically) disregard aspects of ordinary language that otherwise block recognition of such inferences. Reasoning, thus, isn't easy-and perhaps isn't natural; and we're very much unequal in our abilities to exercise it. My story may go some way toward explaining such differences.

Mathematics, early on, drew the attention of philosophers because of its delightfully long chains of (nevertheless) successful inferences. I've largely, although not entirely, evaded the question of whether the first-order story I've told about mathematical reasoning extends beyond that subject matter to human reason generally. There is some evidence that it doesn't: What I called the "semantic (and pragmatic) excrescences" of the terms of ordinary language seem to come into their own even in the sciences-where, for example, notions of causation play havoc with the neat truth-functionality of "ifthen." What I'd like to show, if I can see how, is that despite appearances, the first-order story I've told about mathematics does generalize. Mature mathematics isn't a specialized game of reason; its logic is the whole of our natural logic. But this is future work.

One last point: This qualification about the general applicability of the first-order descriptive thesis to our reasoning in general may seem to restrict my general theses to reasoning-in-mathematics, and thus it may seem that the title of this book is misleading. It isn’t. Regardless of the fate of the descriptive first-order thesis for reasoning generally, it certainly remains the case that first-order reasoning is a part -­ if not a major part -- of reasoning per se. And, in any case, the major claims about the opacity to introspection of the principles by which we reason remain intact without the first-order descriptive thesis -­ even more so.”
pp 332-333

Jody Azzouni is Professor of Philosophy at Tufts University.

C+ TROUBLE WITH PHYSICS, THE: The Rise of String Theory, the Fall of a Science, and What Comes Next. Lee Smolin. 2006 Houghton-Mifflin “String theory the hot topic in physics for the past 20 years is a dead-end, says Smolin, one of the founders of Canada's Perimeter Institute of Theoretical Physics and himself a lapsed string theorist. In fact, he (and others) argue convincingly, string theory isn't even a fully formed theory it's just a "conjecture." As Smolin reminds his readers, string theorists haven't been able to prove any of their exotic ideas, and he says there isn't much chance that they will in the foreseeable future. The discovery of "dark energy," which seems to be pushing the universe apart faster and faster, isn't explained by string theory and is proving troublesome for that theory's advocates. Smolin (The Life of the Cosmos) believes that physicists are making the mistake of searching for a theory that is "beautiful" and "elegant" instead of one that's actually backed up by experiments.” [From Publishers Weekly Review]

"In this book, physicist Lee Smolin argues that physics - the basis for all other sciences - has lost its way. One of the major problems, according to Smolin, is string theory: an ambitious attempt to formulate a "theory of everything" that explains all the particles and forces of nature and how the universe came to be." "But as Smolin reveals, there's a deep flaw in the theory: no part of it has been tested, and no one knows how to test it. In fact, the theory appears to come in an infinite number of versions, meaning that no experiment will ever be able to prove it false. As a scientific theory, it fails." [From the book jacket]

“All this is to say that like everything else that human beings do, success in science is to a large extent driven by courage and character. ... Science progresses because it is built on an ethic recognizing that in the face of incomplete information we are all equal. No one can predict with certainty whether an approach will lead to definite progress or years of wasted work. All we can do is train students in the crafts that shown to lead most often to reliable conclusions. After that, we must leave them free to follow their own hunches and we must make time to listen to them when they report back. As long as the community continually opens up opportunities for new ideas and points of view and adheres to the ethic that in the end we require consensus based on rational argument from evidence available to all, science will eventually succeed.”

“The task of forming the community of science will never be finished. It will always be necessary to fight off the dominance of orthodoxy, fashion, age, and status. There will always be temptations to take the easy way, to sign up with the team that seems to be winning rather than try to understand a problem afresh. At its finest, the scientific community takes advantage of our best impulses and desires while protecting us from our worst. The community works in part by harnessing the arrogance and ambition we each in some degree bring to the search....”
pp 306-307

UNIFIED THEORIES OF COGNITION.  Allen Newell. 1990 Harvard University Press.

C+ UNIVERSAL COMPUTER, THE The Road from Leibniz toTuring. Martin Davis. 2000 Norton. DJC see Epilogue, especially.

USER ILLUSION, THE: Cutting Consciousness Down to Size.  Tor Nørretranders. Translated by Jonathan Sydenham.   1991   Viking. “They [scientists] realized that the world was not divided into well-ordered formulae and a disorderly everyday world.  It hangs together!  Disorder can emerge from order – the process just happens to be complex. …  The computer became their tool.  ‘A new paradigm has been born,’ wrote Stephen Wolfram.”  p 74.  Quoted by Nørretranders from Wolfram’s article “Computer Software in Science and Mathematics”  in Scientific American  251:3 (1984) pp 140-151.  Wolfram was then 23 years old.

“Wolfram set the agenda for science for decades to come.  “It is common in nature to find systems whose overall behavior is extremely complex, yet whose fundamental component parts are each, very simple.  The complexity is generated by the cooperative effort of many simple identical components.”  p 75.  Quoted by Nørretranders from Wolfram’s article  “Cellular Automata as Models of Complexity”  in Nature  311 (1984)  pp 419-424.

WEB OF LIFE, THE.  Fritjof Capra.  1996 Anchor.  “In my struggle to communicate a complex network of concepts and ideas within the linear constraints of language …”   p xix.  Capra is a physicist and a biologist.  Among his several books are THE TAO OF PHYSICS;  THE TURNING POINT;  and BELONGING TO THE UNIVERSE.

WITTGENSTEIN'S DEFINITION OF MEANING AS USE. Garth Hallett. 1967 Fordam University Press.

C+ WITTGENSTEIN ON RULES AND PRIVATE LANGUAGE Saul Kripke. 1982 Harvard University Press.

WOULD-BE WORLDS:  How Simulation is Changing the Frontiers of Science.   John L. Casti. 1997  Wiley [From chapter 3 The Science of Surprise.  Speaking of how connective structure among a system’s components can act as a generator of surprise.]  “Each cell in the human body contains approximately 100,000 genes – including an unknown number of regulatory genes – all switching each other on and off in an unimaginably complicated network of interactions.  Stuart Kauffman, a theoretical biologist at the Santa Fe Institute, has spent the last 30 years trying to explain the puzzling fact that all this switching on and off doesn’t lead to utter chaos, but rather results in the cell organizing itself into stable patterns of activity appropriate for its particular function in the body.”  p 117-118.

WRITING THE NATURAL WAY. Gabriele Lusser Rico. 1983 Tarcher.

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