“I wish I had an answer to that question because
I’m tired of answering it.” Yogi Berra TV program honoring Mr.
“A little inaccuracy sometimes saves tons of
explanation.” H. H.
Munro (Saki) (1870-1916)
“Since Boole formulated logic in his binary laws,
. . . it has become clear that with a small number of Boolean functions
– in particular, “No,” “Or,” and “If” – it is possible to derive all of
logic.” Stuart A.
Kauffman, in his book THE ORIGINS OF ORDER; Self-organization and
Selection in Evolution p 12.
“Another way of guiding or affecting the direction
of a system's processing is by prestructuring the [entire] set of
alternatives from which it will select, such that desirable options are
easy to find.” John Haugeland in An Overview of the Frame Problem in THE ROBOT'S DILEMMA;
The Frame Problem in Artificial Intelligence © 1987 Ablex Publishing,
Norwood NJ Zenon W. Pylyshyn, editor p 81.
"A frame separates the description of the world into blocks, each
corresponding to a different aspect of the world, so that an event
belonging to a certain block affects only facts within the same block. .
. . The price we have to pay is a new set of difficult problems. Among
them is the problem of how and when to switch frames . . .
And . . . How to reshuffle information from the old frame into . . . The
new frame. These problems remain largely unsolved." Lars-Erik Janlert,
University of Umeå, Sweden in Fames in THE ROBOT'S DILEMMA Zenon W.
Pylyshyn, editor Part 2: Survey Of Suggested Solutions p 14.
“The 'best' explanation is the one you want to accept all things
considered.” James P. Hogan in his book MIND MATTERS; Exploring the
World of Artificial Intelligence © 1997 James P. Hogan Ballentine
“Mathematics is the group of sciences dealing with symbols and rules. .
. . The most basic rules in mathematics, which practically underpin all
sciences, are 1. the concept of zero 2. positional notation 3.
operators, arithmetic as well as logical 4. abstraction and
idealization.” NEW INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES Dimitras Chorafas © 1992 Van
Nostrand Reinhold p 20.
“Drawing on my fine command of the English language, I said nothing.”
Robert Benchley http://www.starlingstudios.com
“Many problems of practical importance are
problems of reasoning about actions. In these problems, a course of
action has to be found that satisfies a number of specified conditions.
Everyday examples of reasoning about actions include planning an
airplane trip, organizing a dinner party, etc. . . . A problem of
reasoning about actions (Simon, 1966) is given in terms of an initial
situation, a terminal situation, a set of feasible actions, and a set of
constraints that restrict the applicability of actions. The task of a
problem solver is to find the
best sequence of permissible actions that can transform the initial
situation into the terminal situation.” From On Representations of
Problems of Reasoning About Actions. Saul Amarel -- Printed in READINGS
IN ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE editors Bonnie Lynn Webber and Nils J.
Nilsson, 1981 Palo Alto, CA: Tioga Pub. Co.
“A person who has played other games approaches a newly-introduced game
with certain expectations: there will be rules, players, playing pieces,
perhaps a board, and the players will take turns. Although he may be new
to the game, experience has taught him what there is to be learned about
a game and how to learn it.” From The Intelligent Novice: Learning to
Play Better, in the book HEURISTIC PROGRAMMING IN ARTIFICIAL
INTELLIGENCE: THE FIRST OLYMPIAD edited by David Levy 1989. Chichester,
UK: Ellis Horwood Limited.
“It is not that the games and mathematical problems are chosen because
they are clear and simple; rather it is that they give us, for the
smallest initial structures, the greatest complexity, so that one can
engage some really formidable situations after a relatively minimal
diversion into programming.” 1968. Marvin Minsky -- From SEMANTIC
INFORMATION PROCESSING Cambridge, MA: MIT Press p 12.
“All knowledge, all science, thus aims to grasp the meaning of objects
and events, and this process always consists in taking them out of their
apparent brute isolation as events, and finding them to be parts of some
larger whole suggested by them, which, in turn, accounts for, explains,
interprets them; i.e. renders them significant.” John Dewey in his book
HOW WE THINK Henry Holt and Company 1938 p 117.
“. . . science is a process, a series of occurrences which lead from
some initial point to some identifiable conclusion.” Richard W. Miller
in his Study Guide to Copi and Cohen’s INTRODUCTION TO LOGIC tenth
edition © 1998 Prentice Hall.
“Everyone’s cheering for everyone else.”
Spectator on TV rebroadcast
channel 6 Cincinnati during The Flying Pig Marathon 5/9/99.
“If it weren’t for the last minute, a lot of things wouldn’t get done.”
Michael Traylor © 1998 Myron Manufacturing Corp., Maywood, NJ.
“We are surrounded by explanations. . . We do not normally stop to ask
what these explanations mean or what they are supposed to be explaining.
. . We look at a body of theory and find a confusing patchwork of
schools and approaches, and it is very hard to see how they fit
together. . . we have a bewildering variety of ways of approach and
modes of explanation. Faced with such a list, what strikes us is the
difficulty of finding a coherent way of comparing the different
theories. . . They fit together only in a very complicated and
overlapping geometry.” Alan Garfinkel FORMS OF EXPLANATION © 1981 Yale
Univ. Introduction p 1.
“A mathematician, like a painter or poet, is a maker of patterns . . .
with ideas.” Godfrey H. Hardy (1877-1947) MUSIC OF REASON, THE
EXPERIENCE THE BEAUTY OF MATHEMATICS THROUGH QUOTATIONS © 1995 Theoni
Pappas Wide World Publishing/Tetra P.O. Box 476, San Carlos CA 94070.
“The mathematician may be compared to a designer of garments, who is
utterly oblivious of the creatures whom his garment may fit.”
Tobias Danzig THE MUSIC OF REASON; THE EXPERIENCE, THE BEAUTY OF MATHEMATICS
THROUGH QUOTATIONS © 1995 Theoni Pappas Wide World Publishing/Tetra P.O.
Box 476, San Carlos CA 94070.
“Most of the propositions and questions of philosophers arise from our
failure to understand the logic of our language. . . It is not humanly
possible to gather immediately from it what the logic of language is. .
. . Language disguises thought. So much so, that from the outward form
of the clothing it is impossible to infer the form of the thought
beneath it, because the outward form of the clothing is not designed to
reveal the form of the body, but for entirely different purposes."
(4.002) WITTGENSTEIN'S DEFINITION OF MEANING AS USE Garth Hallett 1967
Fordham University Press p 8.
“The requirement that games all need a playing field is of far-reaching
intellectual importance for several reasons. On the playing field, only
the rules of the game apply. The fact that there are rules and playing
fields makes games simplifications of life, which can call forth as much
effort and attention as anything else but usually are less dangerous and
frustrating than real life.” SIMPLICITY & COMPLEXITY IN GAMES OF THE
INTELLECT © 1992 Lawrence B. Slobodkin Harvard University Press p 77.
“To get an idea across to others, put it in a frame of reference they
are used to. The game inside oneself is to get all the pieces of the
reality puzzle to fit together, stick together, with no leftover pieces
and no forcing.” Clark McKowen in his book THINKING ABOUT THINKING © 1986 William Kaufmann, Inc. p 278.
“Man invented language to satisfy his deep need to complain.”
“It is not the things that we don't know that hurt us; it is the
things that we think we know.” John W. Elgin 7/24/04 Awakenings
on Erie Ave in Cincinnati.
“In psychology, we are overwhelmed with things to explain, and somewhat
underwhelmed by things to explain them with. Why is that?” in
EXPLANATION AND COGNITION editors Frank C. Keil and Robert A. Wilson © 2000 The MIT Press Cambridge MA London England: p 120.
“The brain does not operate by reducing
everything to indices and computation. It follows trails of
association, flying almost instantly from item to item, bringing into
consciousness only the significant. Its associative trails bifurcate
and cross, are erased by disuse and emphasized by success.”
Dr. Vannevar Bush in Science Pauses, an article by Dr. Bush in
Fortune May 1965 p 119.
“Pole vaulting to conclusions.”
Clark McKowen p 108 in his book IMAGE; Reflections on Language © 1973
Clark McKowen Diablo Valley College. Macmillan.
“It is wrong to think that the task of physics
is to find out how Nature is. Physics concerns what we can say about
Nature.” Niels Bohr Cited by Heinz R. Pagels © 1982 p
73 in his book THE COSMIC CODE; QUANTUM PHYSICS AS THE LANGUAGE OF
NATURE A Bantam Book Simon & Schuster.
“Making mental connections is our most crucial
learning tool, the essence of human intelligence: to forge links; to
go beyond the given; to see patterns, relationships, context.”
Marilyn Ferguson. The Aquarian Conspiracy (1980). Quoted p 63 in The
Beacon Book of Quotations by Women © 1992 Rosalie Maggio Beacon Press.
“It is often claimed that knowledge multiplies
so rapidly that nobody can follow it. I believe this is incorrect. At
least in science it is not true. The main purpose of science is
simplicity and as we understand more things, everything is becoming
simpler. This of course, goes contrary to what everybody accepts.”
Edward Teller. Conversations on the Dark Secrets of Physics
1991. Quoted p 284 in THE NEW YORK PUBLIC LIBRARY BOOK OF 2OTH CENTURY
QUOTATIONS © 1992 Stonesong Press.
“There are important differences in the learning
styles of the two cerebral hemispheres; the left is constructive,
algorithmic, stepwise, and logical. It benefits from narrow examples
and from trial and error, it can learn by rules. The right hemisphere,
on the other hand, does not seem to learn by exposure to specific rules
and examples. Our studies show that it does not have an internal model
of its own solution processes, which it can then interrogate and
update. It [the right hemisphere] needs exposure to rich and associative patterns.” Earn
Zaidel The Elusive Right Hemisphere of the Brain in Engineering
and Science California Institute of Technology Sept.- Oct. 1978 cited
by Betty Edwards in her book DRAWING ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE BRAIN Simon and Schuster p 11.
“This sort of learning
[catechistical] is not conducive to the deeper
level thinking we hope to promote because it does not create connected
knowledge structures or complex representations in memory.”
Diane Halpern p 70 in THINKING SKILLS INSTRUCTION: Concepts And
“The language of mathematics is powerful because
it is composed of parts that fit together in a well-organized
structure.” © 1963 Mary Alice
Hilton in her book LOGIC, COMPUTING MACHINES, AND AUTOMATION p 5 Meridian, World Publishing.
Music is powerful because it is composed of parts that fit together
in a well-organized structure.
“The difference between our system and the Roman
system is not merely in the number of symbols at our disposal and the
designation of these symbols . . . The most important difference is in
our conception of zero as a number and in our use of the principle of
position -- both unknown to the Romans.”
© 1963 Mary Alice Hilton in her book LOGIC, COMPUTING MACHINES, AND
AUTOMATION p 197 Meridian, World Publishing.
“It is through recognition of a structure of this
kind that we can have knowledge of an external world which from an
ordinary standpoint is essentially unknowable.”
Sir Arthur Eddington New Pathways in Science, Cambridge University
Press (1934) cited by Mary Alice Hilton in her 1963 book LOGIC,
COMPUTING MACHINES, AND AUTOMATION p 88 Meridian, World Publishing.
Robert Frost, who was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 1924, 1931, 1937,
and 1943, described a poem as “a momentary stay
against confusion.” IMS: Robert Frost, Harper Audio 122994.
“The meaning of a phrase . . . is characterized by
the use we make of it.” Wittgenstein cited by Garth Hallett
in his book Wittgenstein's DEFINITION OF MEANING AS USE p 94 (Blue Book
“Being logical means going on tour, moving through places of
“The heart has reasons that reason knows nothing
of.” B. Pascal Pensées.
“I saw a fleet of fishing boats . . . I flew down
. . . and yelled at them, asking if I was on the right road to Ireland.”
Charles Lindbergh Cited p iv in GREAT PEOPLE OF THE 20TH CENTURY © 1996 by TIME Inc. Home Entertainment. Published by TIME BOOKS Time Inc.
“There is no past; the only tense is now.”
Clark McKowen p 278 in his book IMAGE Reflections on Language © 1973
Clark McKowen Diablo Valley College. Macmillan.
“No great deed is done by falterers who ask for
certainty.” George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans). Quoted by Kari
Lynn Dean in her article Awarding the Brains Behind AI about
Stanford computer scientist Daphne Koller in Wired News 10/18/04.
“A good way to get through a field of complications is to see all the
pathways the experts take.
The pieces cluttered in the jig saw puzzle box are not the
puzzle. They are the parts which will form the answer. The
puzzle is how to connect the parts (1) according to rules of fit, and
(2) so their surface patterns form some completely unrelated information
like ‘see this picture of mountains.’ The value of the activity of
connecting the parts is likely not in the picture but more likely in the
sense of accomplishment and in the game-like setting that may exist and
in the attitude of the puzzlers.
Thus, the task is not so much to see what no one
has yet seen; but to think what nobody has yet thought, about that which
everybody sees.” Erwin Schrodinger
limits of my language mean the limits of my world.”
Ludwig Wittgenstein in LANGUAGE Introductory Readings editors Virginia
P. Clark; Paul A. Eschholz; Alfred F. Roa University of Vermont © 1972
St. Martin’s Press (which see).
our science, measured against reality, is primitive and childlike – and
yet it the most precious thing we have.”
Albert Einstein (1879-1955) from Carl Sagan’s 1995 book THE
DEMON-HAUNTED WORLD Science as a Candle In the Dark. Random House p
formulation of a problem is far more important than its solution, which
may be merely a matter of mathematical or experimental skill. To raise
new questions, to look at old problems from a new angle marks the real
advances in science.”
Albert Einstein in Mike Cooley’s chapter Human-Centered Design
in the book INFORMATION DESIGN edited by Robert Jacobson © 1999 MIT MIT Press p 80.
sounded an excellent plan, no doubt, and very neatly and simply
arranged. The only difficulty was, she had not the smallest idea how
to set about it.”
Lewis Carroll, of ALICE IN WONDERLAND. Cited by Paul E. Plsek in his
WORKING PAPER Models for the Creative Process (which see).
“Insight, untested and unsupported, is an
insufficient guarantee of truth.” Bertrand Russell in Mysticism and Logic (1929). Quoted
Sagan in his 1995 book THE DEMON-HAUNTED WORLD: Science as a Candle in
the Dark. Random House p 294.
“There is nothing which can better deserve our patronage than the
promotion of science and literature. Knowledge is in every country the
surest basis of public happiness.”
George Washington in an address to Congress, January 8, 1790. Quoted by
Carl Sagan in his
1995 book THE DEMON-HAUNTED WORLD Science as a Candle in the Dark.
Random House p 380.
“Science. Thank God.” DJC.
“In nature there is no ‘above’ or ‘below,’ and
there are no hierarchies. There are only networks nesting within other
Fritjof Capra, physicist and ecologist, in his 1996 book THE WEB OF LIFE
The New Scientific Understanding of Living Systems Anchor Books Doubleday p 34.
“Science is what you know, philosophy is what
you don’t know.” Bertrand Russell in ThinkExist (quotations)
http://www.thinkexist.com/ . (Accessed June 7, 2005.)
“Science is the father of knowledge, but
opinion breeds ignorance.” Hippocrates in ThinkExist (quotations)
“Science investigates, religion interprets. Science gives man knowledge which is power, religion gives man wisdom
which is control.”
Martin Luther King, Jr. American Baptist minister and civil-rights
leader. 1929-1968. in ThinkExist (quotations)
“The great tragedy of Science: the slaying of a
beautiful hypothesis by an ugly fact.” Thomas Henry Huxley in ThinkExist (quotations)
“Philosophy is the science which considers
truth.” Aristotle Ancient Greek philosopher, scientist and
physician, 384 BC-322 BC. in ThinkExist (quotations)
“If education is always to be conceived along
the same antiquated lines of mere transmission of knowledge, there is
little to be hoped from it in the bettering of man’s future.” Maria Montessori Italian physician and educator 1857-1952. in
“The greatest sign of success for a teacher … is to be able to say,
“The children are now working as though I did not exist.” Maria Montessori Italian physician and educator 1857-1952. in
“We especially need imagination in science. It is not all mathematics,
nor all logic, but is somewhat beauty and poetry.” Maria Montessori Italian physician and educator 1857-1952. in ThinkExist (quotations)
“I shall argue that the key to a comprehensive
theory of living systems lies in the synthesis of those two very
different approaches, the study of substance (or structure) and the
study of form (or pattern). In the study of structure we measure and
weigh things. Patterns, however, cannot be measured or weighed; they
must be mapped. To understand a pattern we must map a configuration of
relationships. In other words, structure involves quantities, while
pattern involves qualities.”
Fritjof Capra, physicist and ecologist, in
his 1996 book THE WEB OF LIFE The New Scientific Understanding of Living
Systems Anchor Books Doubleday p 81.
“The study of pattern is crucial to the
understanding of living systems because systemic properties … arise from
a configuration of ordered relationships.”
[Capra quoting Robert Lilienfield 1978 THE RISE OF SYSTEMS THEORY p 18,
“Systemic properties are properties of
a pattern. What is destroyed when a living organism is dissected is its
pattern. The components are still there, but the configuration of
relationships among them – the pattern – is destroyed, and thus the
organism dies.” Fritjof Capra, physicist and ecologist, in
his 1996 book THE WEB OF LIFE The New Scientific Understanding of Living
Systems Anchor Books Doubleday p 81.
“Is there a common pattern of
organization that can be identified in all living systems? We shall see
that this is indeed the case …. Whenever we encounter living systems
-- organisms, parts of organisms, or communities of organisms – we can
observe that their components are arranged in network fashion. Whenever
we look at life, we look at networks.” Fritjof Capra, physicist and ecologist, in his 1996 book THE WEB
OF LIFE The New Scientific Understanding of Living Systems Anchor
Books Doubleday p 82.
“Great wits are sure to madness near allied, and thin partitions do
their minds divide.”
John Dryden cited in Pierce Howard’s
OWNER’S MANUAL FOR THE
BRAIN, THE p 608 (which see).
“The lunatic, the lover, and the poet, are of imagination all
compact.” William Shakespeare
OWNER’S MANUAL FOR THE BRAIN, THE p 608 (which see).
believe that the decisive idea which brings the solution of a problem is
often rather connected with a well-turned word or sentence. The word or
sentence enlightens the situation, gives things, as you say, a
physiognomy.” G. Pólya,
quoted by mathematician Jacques Hadamard in his book AN ESSAY ON THE
PSYCHOLOGY OF INVENTION IN THE MATHEMATICAL FIELD © 1945 Princeton
University Press (Unabridged reprint of the 1929 version by Dover
necessary.” Arthur Spinanger Exemplary Creative leader
and teacher at Procter & Gamble who called forth the best in other
“It is not who I am underneath that matters. It is what I do that
Batman in the film BATMAN BEGINS (2005).
world can only be grasped by action, not contemplation...The hand is the
cutting edge of the mind.”
Bronowski in his book The Ascent of Man 1973 Little, Brown.
From Quotations – Netscape
used to think that if we knew one, we knew two, because one and one are
two. We are finding that we must learn a great deal more about `and'.”
Eddington Quoted in N. Rose Mathematical Maxims and Minims
(Raleigh N C 1988). From Quotations – Netscape
can never be surprises in logic.” Quoted in
J. R. Newman in The World of Mathematics (New York 1956). From
Quotations – Netscape
“We now have seen how Soar
[an AI program] performs – by using
problem spaces and moving through them to attain its tasks, detouring as
necessary to resolve whatever impasses arise. Allen
Newell in his book UNIFIED THEORIES OF COGNITION 1990 President
and Fellows of Harvard College, Harvard University Press. p 185.
you want things to stay as they are, things will have to change.” Giuseppe
Tomasi di Lampedusa Italian writer 1896-1957 from Thinkexist.com ‘s
Quote of the Day “Finding Quotations was never this Easy!”
“Latent structure is master of obvious
structure” Heraclitus Quoted by Philip K. Dick, science fiction writer in his
essay How to Build a Universe That Doesn’t Fall Apart Two Days Later.
“...all things are wrapped
in appearances.” Xenophanes Quoted by Philip K. Dick,
science fiction writer in his essay How to Build a Universe That
Doesn’t Fall Apart Two Days Later. http://downlode.org/etext/how_to_build.html Accessed 1/29/2006.
From Susan Haack’s book DEVIANT LOGIC, FUZZY LOGIC: Beyond the Formalism
(which see) p 232; “Word-language is inadequate in a similar way. We need a system of symbols from which every ambiguity is banned, which has a strict logical form from which the content cannot escape.” (Gottlob Frege, ‘On the Scientific Justification of a Conceptual Notation.’ p. 86)
From Susan Haack’s book DEVIANT LOGIC, FUZZY LOGIC: Beyond the Formalism
(which see) p 232; “Formal logic is incapacitated by its self-imposed limitation from dealing with the problems of actual thinking and from rationally interpreting the conception of truth implied in such thinking. . . . We need, in short. a second [non-formal] Logic which will be applicable to life and relevant to actual thought.” (F.C.S. Schiller, Formal Logic, A scientific And Social Problem, p. 8)
"The scientific method, as far as it is a method, is doing one's damnedest with one's mind, no holds barred." Percy Bridgman
"The Prospect for Intelligence." Quoted by Susan Haack in her book, DEFENDING SCIENCE -- Within Reason (which see) p 93.
“In practical matters, the end is not mere speculative knowledge of what is to be done, but rather the doing of it.” Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics 6.13.1 (350 B.C.). From Jerry Avorn’s book POWERFUL MEDICINES: The Benefits, Risks, and Costs of Prescription Drugs, which see. © 2004 Jerry Avorn, M.D. A Borzoi book. Knopf.
“You can never solve a problem on the level on which it was created.” Albert Einstein quoted by Jone Johnson Lewis in WISDOM QUOTES: Quotations to Inspire and Challenge © 1995-2006 at http://www.wisdomquotes.com
“Everything is vague to a degree you do not realize till you have tried to make it precise.” Bertrand Russell in his Philosophy of Logical Atomism quoted by Jone Johnson Lewis in WISDOM QUOTES: Quotations to Inspire and Challenge © 1995-2006 at http://www.wisdomquotes.com
“A property common to everything is its connectedness, its relatedness – even when the connectedness among specified things is apparently zero. This zero is like the zeros on a baseball scoreboard that reads ‘0 to 0’ which one expects to mean that a game is in process. If there is no game, the scoreboard might read ” DJC 10/1/06.
“There is more than a verbal tie between the words common, community, and communication.... Try the experiment of communicating, with fullness and accuracy, some experience to another, especially if it be somewhat complicated, and you will find your own attitude toward your experience changing.” John Dewey: From WISDOM QUOTES: Quotations to Inspire and Challenge – by Jone Johnson Lewis at http://www.wisdomquotes.com.
“I am part of all that I have met.” Alfred Tennyson From WISDOM QUOTES: Quotations to
Inspire and Challenge – by Jone Johnson Lewis at http://www.wisdomquotes.com .
“The most successful people are those who are good at plan B.” James Yorke From WISDOM QUOTES: Quotations to Inspire and Challenge – by Jone Johnson Lewis at http://www.wisdomquotes.com .
“A sense of duty is useful in work, but offensive in personal relations. People wish to be liked, not be endured with patient resignation.” From WISDOM QUOTES: Quotations to Inspire and Challenge – by Jone Johnson Lewis at http://www.wisdomquotes.com .
“We are made wise not by the recollection of our past, but by the responsibility for our future.” George Bernard Shaw From WISDOM QUOTES: Quotations to Inspire and Challenge – by Jone Johnson Lewis at http://www.wisdomquotes.com .
“The leaders who work most effectively, it seems to me, never say "I." And that's not because they have trained themselves not to say "I." They don't think "I." They think "we"; they think "team." They understand their job to be to make the team function. They accept responsibility and don't sidestep it, but "we" gets the credit…. This is what creates trust, what enables you to get the task done.” Peter Drucker From WISDOM QUOTES: Quotations to Inspire and Challenge – by Jone Johnson Lewis at http://www.wisdomquotes.com .
”There is nothing in a caterpillar that tells you it's going to be a butterfly.” Buckminster Fuller: From WISDOM QUOTES: Quotations to Inspire and Challenge – by Jone Johnson Lewis at http://www.wisdomquotes.com .
“Creativity requires the courage to let go of certainties.” Erich Fromm: From WISDOM QUOTES: Quotations to Inspire and Challenge – by Jone Johnson Lewis at http://www.wisdomquotes.com .